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Menstrual Cycle


The Period


A series of physiological changes occur in fertile females is called as menstrual cycle.

Blood flow from the uterus through the vagina is called as menstruatio.


It occurs mainly in humans and some animals such as chimpanzees.

Females undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal at the end of its reproductive cycle.


Phases of Menstrual Cycle

It is commonly divided into three phases:

1.    The follicular phase,
2.    The ovulation,
3.    The luteal phase

boi_menstrual04Although some sources use a different set of phases:

1.    Menstruation,
2.    Proliferative phase
3.    Secretary phase.

Is Menstrual cycle same to all woman?

No, the length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days. Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding.

boi_menstrual05The amount of oestrogen in the follicular phase increases it then discharges of blood slow then stop bleeding and the uterus lining thickens.

Ovarian follicles begin of the interplay of hormones. After some days mostly one follicle becomes dominant. Rarely 2 or more become dominant.

Recessive follicles will die. About 24–36 hours after the LH surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum.

This process is already known by us as ‘ovulation’. After ovulation, the egg can survive for maximum 24 hours. In this time period if it is not fertilized with a sperm the uterine wall brokens and it is shed as a blood flow.


Changes in Menstrual Cycle

In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system. It also affects some other systems. Breast tenderness or mood changes are some of the major symptoms.


A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12.


It is the end of a woman's reproductive phase which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55.

If the menstrual cycle changes and totally irregular it may lead to many health problems and mainly it affects the pregnancy. Because of this irregularity in the menses, the formation of egg day may vary and the couples cannot predict the maximum fertile period and females fails to get pregnant.

If the cycle is regular the day 12- 19 is considered as a fertile period and the couples who plan for a baby can have sexual intercourse in this fertile period and give birth to a baby if the fertilization occurs in the female body. Medical advances help the female to get pregnant in several ways like IVF and other treatments. But still the irregular periods is noted as an important process for many health issues.

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