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Anatomy and Functions of Vagina


The Human Vagina

What is Vagina?

The vagina is a fibro muscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals.

Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct.

The vagina receives the semen from the male partner during the ejaculation that is at the climax of sexual intercourse.

Location and Structure of Vagina

  • It is an elastic muscular canal.
  • Extends from the cervix to the vulva.
  • Length of vagina is different in aroused and unaroused states.
  • In normal unaroused state vagina is approximately 6 to 7.5 cm  across the anterior wall and 9 cm long across the posterior wall.

During sexual arousal the vagina expands a bit. In woman’s standing position it forms an angle more than 45 degrees with the uterus. The vaginal opening is at the caudal end of the vulva. The vulva is present behind the opening of the urethra.

During sexual intercourse woman gets arousal and the Vaginal lubrication occurs. It is given by the Bartholin's glands. It is located near the vaginal opening and the cervix. Mucus is secreted by the mucus glands of cervix. This mucus provides a favorable alkaline environment in the vaginal canal which maximize the chance of survival for sperm.


The hymen is situated at the opening of the vagina. It is a thin membrane of connective tissue. This tissue may be ruptured by vaginal penetration, a pelvic examination, injury, or sports.

Functions of Vagina:

The vagina has several biological functions.

Sexual activity

  • During sexual arousal the walls of the vagina self-lubricate. 
  • Reduces friction caused because of various sexual activities.


  • G spot is an erogenous zone 
  • Located at the anterior wall of the vagina
  • G-Spot orgasm is responsible for female ejaculation


  • The vagina provides a pathway to deliver the infant from the uterus to its independent life outside the body of the mother. This is called child birth. 
  • he elasticity of the vagina allows it to stretch to many times its normal diameter during child birth. 
  • Vagina referred as the birth canal.

Uterine secretions
Menstrual blood secreted in uterus in the absence of fertilization leaves the body through the pathway of Vagina.

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